Суббота, 03.12.2016, 05:24

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Более сложные местоимения, pronouns

Местоимение, по-английски, это "pronoun". Используются различные местоимения, в зависимости от того, какое положение они занимают в предложении.

Для начала введем 2 термина: 1) subject, 2) object.

Что такое “subject”? Это - подлежащее, т.е. субъект который производит действие. Например: "I write". Subject = “I”. Еще пример: "she listens". Subject = "she".

Что такое “object”? Это предмет, по отношению к которому производится действие. E.g. (например) “I write a letter”:

"I" – subject

"Write" – verb (глагол)

"a letter" – object

Другой пример: "She met me in the evening".

"She" – subject

"met" – verb

"Me" - object

Итак, если местоимение играет роль subject – мы используем одни местоимения. Если местоимения играет роль object – мы используем другие местоимения:

subject object
I me
you you
she her
he him
it it
we us
you  you
they

them

Упражнение 1: вставьте либо "subject" либо "object" pronouns. 

  1. __ Iike ___
  2. ___ met ____ in the evening.
  3. ___ is smarter than ____.
  4. __ celebrate the New Year with ____.
  5. __ will come to ___ tomorrow.
  6. ___ will buy it from ____.
  7. ____ will say to ____.
  8. __ plays better than ___.
  9. ___ is reading a book to ____.
  10. ___ want to go to London with ____.

Кроме "subject" & "object" есть также "притяжательные" местоимения, "possessive pronouns". Они указывают на то, кому принадлежит что-то. Эти слова имеют 2 вида: когда используются вместе с существительным, и без него. Например:

This is my car. 

This is mine. 

В первом случае, "my" - потому, что рядом "car". Во втором случае - "mine" потому, что рядом существительного нет. 

possessive pronouns with a noun possessive pronoun without a noun
my (car) mine
your (car) yours
his (car) his
her (car) hers
its (driver) its
our (car) ours
your (car) yours
their (car) theirs

Упражнение 2Выберите правильное слово.

E.g. I like your/yours house -> "your"

1. Ours/Our house is smaller than their/theirs.

2. And their/theirs garden is bigger than our/ours too.

3. My/mine children are older than her/hers.

4. This book isn't my/mine. Is it your/yours?

5. John is crying, but it isn't my/mine fault.

6. Whose coat is it? My/mine.

 

Упражнение 3: Посмотрите на местоимения в песне "Love me tender". Подчеркните их. Расскажите, почему используется различные местоимения (me, my, mine)?

Love me tender,
Love me sweet,
Never let me go.
You have made my life complete,
And I love you so.

Love me tender,
Love me true,
All my dreams fulfilled.
For my darlin I love you,
And I always will.

Love me tender,
Love me long,
Take me to your heart.
For its there that I belong,
And well never part.

Love me tender,
Love me dear,
Tell me you are mine.
Ill be yours through all the years,
Till the end of time.

 

Упражнение 4перепешите и переведите текст, используйте местоимения вместо существительных когда возможно. 

Maria is a Ukrainian woman, but Maria lives in New York because Maria wants to see the world. Maria is a professional interpretor. Maria likes New York because New York is interesting, but Maria's husband, Nikolai, doesn't like New York. Nikolai wants to come back to Ukraine. Maria and Nikolai have 2 children. Nikolai takes the 2 children and the children's dog out of the city in Nikolai's free time. Nik and the 2 children go camping in the summer and skiing in the winter. Maria doesn't go with Nik and the 2 children because Maria has a lover, John. So, Maria and John go skating. After skating, Maria and John feel tired, so Maria and John go to John's house and make love. Then, Maria comes back to Nick and Maria's children and Maria and Nick both feel rested.

Кроме того, есть "возвратные" местоимения (reflexive pronouns). Например: "Я порезал себя" - I cut myself. Слово "себя" меняется, в зависимости от того, кто произвел действие - я, ты, он, и т.д. Например: "ты любишь себя" - "you love yourself". 

subject pronoun reflexive pronoun
I myself
you yourself
he himself
she herself
it itself
we ourselves
you yourselves
they themselves

Упражнение 5: Вставьте местоимение и переведите, Insert a pronoun and translate:

1. Mary taught ______________ to play guitar.
2. John fell and hurt __________ yesterday.
3. I can't explain it _____________.
4. The computer will turn ___________ off.
5. We looked at ________________ in the mirror.
6. The young man cut ____ while shaving.
7. I love to be by _____________.
8. They will take care of _________.
9. I have calmed ________.
10. We're interested in this ____________.
11. She likes biking by __________.
12. In Britain, there are "Do it ______" (DIY) stores.

 

Упражнение 6: Послушайте и переведите одну из моих любимых песен: "All by myself"

When I was young
I never needed anyone
And makin' love was just for fun
Those days are gone

Livin' alone
I think of all the friends I've known
But when I dial the telephone
Nobody's home

All by myself
Don't want to be, all by myself anymore
All by myself
Don't want to live, all by myself anymore

Hard to be sure
Some times I feel so insecure
And love so distant and obscure
Remains the cure